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Five Great Scientists and their inventions


Five Great Scientists and their inventions                           


Albert Einstein (14th March 1879-18th April 1955) 

Born on 14th March 1879, Einstein is rightly considered the most famous scientist and a notable theoretical physicist of all time. Einstein is forever to be known to the world of science through the theories of relativity. The credit of founding and developing theories of relativity named “Relativity theory” goes to him.

His theory of relativity along with his equation E=mc2 made him a worldwide celebrity. When it was published in 1905, the theory of relativity had little impact on the general public. It was even rejected by some renowned scientists. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his interpretation of the photoelectric effect.

By birth, he was a German. Though he was born in Germany, later he migrated to the United States. Therefore, today he is known as a German-American physicist. His schooling was in Munich, where he attended rigidly disciplined schools. He practiced music also. He received a doctorate degree from Zurich University in 1905.

 Einstein died on 18th April 1955 in his sleep at Princeton Hospital. He was a famous Physicist, a violinist, and a mathematician also. To mankind, he made a unique contribution to understanding the universe. In the history of science, he holds a prominent place.

Charles Robert Darwin (12th February 1809-19th April 1882)

Born on 12th February 1809, Darwin was the second son of his parents, Robert Waring Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood. He was born in England and educated at Cambridge and Edwin Burgh. He is noted for his contributions to the science of evolution. He was the founder of ‘The Theory of Evolution.

He made a long voyage and carried out extensive research. Darwin’s courage and intelligence were to set the pattern for research on the origin of human beings. He concentrated his studies to find out the missing factors about the evolution of man. In 1859 he published the book ‘On the Origins of Species’

Though the publication of this book paved the way for much debate and discussion, he is still considered the greatest scientist as well as the most controversial scientist of all time. His explanations of the evolution of species had helped the later scientists to understand the missing factors about the evolution of man and are widely accepted now. Unfortunately, fate did not allow him to complete his studies, he died on 19th April 1882.

Galileo Galilei (15th February 1564-8th January 1642)

 In addition to being an astronomer and mathematician, Galileo Galilei made a great contribution to the development of science. Galileo Galilei was a man of progressive views against all blind beliefs. In those days, the earth was considered the center of the universe. However, he demonstrated that the earth is only a part of the Milky Way.

Galileo Galilei is regarded as the father of modern science and is known for his work in physics, astronomy, cosmology, mathematics, and philosophy. The fundamental contributions of his work are in motion and astronomy. A range of his inventions, including compasses and balances, improved telescopes and microscopes, revolutionized the field of astronomy and biology. 

By arranging lenses, he built the first telescope in 1606. Using the telescope, he observed and mapped the moons of Jupiter, Saturn's rings, Venus' phases, sunspots, and craters and mountains on the moon. In 1632, he published a book ‘the dialogue of the two principal systems of the world’. 

His book and his discoveries provoked the religious authorities at the time. The religious authorities condemned his book and imprisoned him in his home. Galileo spent nine years in house arrest during the final nine years of his life. A summary of his early motion experiments was being written at that time, which became his last great scientific work. He died on January 8, 1642, at age 77.

Hippocrates (Birth: 460 BC/Death: 375 BC)

You may have heard of the Hippocratic Oath which medical students take when they graduate. Hippocrates is regarded as the father of medicine and the most celebrated physician of antiquity. It is noted that he did not write the so-called Hippocratic Oath, though it is associated with his name.

Around 460 BC, Hippocrates was born on the island of Kos. Many diseases and medical conditions were described by Hippocrates and his followers for the first time. Hippocrates and his successors promoted the theory of the four "humors": black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. According to him whenever these humors were in balance, health prevailed; when they were vitiated, disease prevailed.

The life and activities of Hippocrates is not well documented. However, we know he possessed extraordinary talents and vision based on what we have heard and read about him. It is said that the Greek philosopher Plato was his contemporary. In Plato's writings, Hippocrates is described as the greatest of all physicians. The most remarkable thing about Hippocrates is his philosophical approach to medicine in addition to the importance he gave to ethics and principles.

In his view, the body is a "whole" or a single organism. Hippocrates is often credited with many works, but in reality, there are very few that actually belong to him. One of the most prominent works in the Hippocratic collection was a treatise on epidemics. Another work is Aphorisms, a collection of 412 brief counsels concerning diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.


Maria Sklodowska Curie 7th Noevember1867 4th July1934

Maria curie was a Polish-French physicist and chemist. Radioactivity was her area of expertise. As a radioactivity pioneer, she made important contributions to the field. In addition, she is the first person to receive the Nobel Prize twice. She was born in Poland and lived there until she was 24. Her parents both worked as teachers, and they tried to instill in their children the value of education.

Upon graduating from high school at 15, she was the most outstanding student. During her youth, she exhibited exceptional memory and a diligent work ethic and was known to neglect both food and sleep to concentrate on studying. Her pursuit of science led her to Paris in 1891.

She married Pierre Curie, a professor at the School of Physics, in 1895 after meeting him in 1894. Upon the death of her husband, she succeeded him as director of the Physics Laboratory at the Sorbonne. Hers was the first woman professorship at the Sorbonne. She was the first woman to hold a professorship at the Sorbonne. In addition, she became the Director of the Curie Laboratory at the Radium Institute of the University of Paris, which was founded in 1914.

Her early research in conjunction with her husband was often conducted in difficult conditions. The laboratory arrangements were poor, and both had to teach to earn a living. Together, they were able to discover radium and polonium through their investigations of radioactivity. 

Both of them together had discovered radium and polonium in their investigation of radioactivity. In addition to being one of the most famous female scientists to date, Marie Curie is honored with many honors and tributes.


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